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  1. Forest stand growth dynamics in Central Europe have accelerated since 1870
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  4. The Most Important Factor for Growing Healthy Trees | DeepRoot Blog

Annual growth of pines in the San Juan basin, Colorado, as related to precipitation and streamflow. Notes on dendrochronology at the Arnold Arboretum. Volume 11 Number 1. Tree-ring work in Scandinavia. Tree-Ring Bulletin 11 1 Gindel, J. Aleppo pine as a medium for tree-ring analysis.

Tabulation of dates for Bluff Ruin, Forestdale, Arizona. Tree-Ring Bulletin 11 2 Tree-rings and runoff in the South Platte River basin. Tree-Ring Bulletin 11 3 Survey of sequoia studies. Tree-Ring Bulletin 11 4 Volume 12 Number 1. Root growth-rings and chronology. Tree-Ring Bulletin 12 1 The range of ring sensitivity.

Survey of sequoia studies, II. Tree-Ring Bulletin 12 2 Dendrochronology at Mesa Verde National Park. Tree-Ring Bulletin 12 3 Hall, E. Preserving and surfacing rotted wood and charcoal. Tree-Ring Bulletin 12 4 Photography of charcoal. Papers dealing with the Flagstaff area - contributed by the Museum of Northern Arizona. Volume 13 Number 1. Hemlock chronology in New England. Tree-Ring Bulletin 13 1 Sequoia survey-III: Miscellaneous notes.

Dendrochronologies in southwestern Canada. Tree-Ring Bulletin 13 Mackenzie River delta chronology. Tree-Ring Bulletin 13 4 Smiley, T. Dates from a surface pueblo at Mesa Verde. Watson, D. Note on the dating of Pipe Shrine House. Volume 14 Number 1. An year Douglas fir at Mesa Verde. Tree-Ring Bulletin 14 1 Photographic tree-ring chronologies and the Flagstaff sequence.

Tree-Ring Bulletin 14 2 Dendrochronology at Navajo National Monument. Tree-Ring Bulletin 14 3 Chronology of the Kobuk-Kotzebue sites. Tree-Ring Bulletin 14 4 Volume 15 Number [Missing]. Dendrochronology in northeastern Utah. Tree-Ring Bulletin 15 Campbell, T. The pioneer tree-ring work of Jacob Kuechler. Tree-Ring Bulletin 15 3 Tree-ring dates from Point of Pines. Chronology characters at ruins in the Gila Basin.

Note on the early Durango Collections. Tree-Ring Bulletin 15 4 Early chronologies in the San Juan Basin. Volume 16 Number 1. A superior sequoia ring record. Tree-Ring Bulletin 16 1 Oswalt, W. Dated houses at Squirrel River, Alaska. Ferguson, C. Additional dates for Nine Mile Canyon, northeastern Utah. Tree-Ring Bulletin 16 2 An extension of the Durango chronology. A dated beam from Dinosaur National Monument.

Tree-Ring Bulletin 16 3 Burgh, R. Miscellaneous Ring Records. Spruce borings from the lower Yukon River, Alaska. Tree-Ring Bulletin 16 4 Volume 17 Number Dendroclimatic histories in the Bryce Canyon area, Utah. Tree-Ring Bulletin 17 Early height growth in Douglas fir. Tree-Ring Bulletin 17 3 Bannister, B. Tree-ring dates for the Gallina area, New Mexico.

Southwestern dated ruins. Tree-Ring Bulletin 17 4 Miscellaneous ring records. Volume 18 Number 1. The forest edge at Norton Bay, Alaska. Tree-Ring Bulletin 18 1 The origin of driftwood at Hooper Bay, Alaska. Definitive dendrochronologies: a progress report. Tree-Ring Bulletin 18 Extension of the San Juan chronology to B.

Tree-Ring Bulletin 18 4 Morris E. Note on the Durango dates. Volume 19 Number 1. Transtrom H. A large increment borer. Tree-Ring Bulletin 19 1 Spruce samples from the Copper River drainage, Alaska. Ferguson, Jr. Tree-ring chronologies on the North Rim of the Grand Canyon. Tree-Ring Bulletin 19 2 Rio Grande chronologies. Tree-Ring Bulletin 19 Volume 20 Number 1. Yukon River spruce growth. Tree-Ring Bulletin 20 1 Van Stone, J. Notes on Kotzebue dating. Vertical uniformity in three New England conifers. Tree-Ring Bulletin 20 2 Antevs, E.

Tree rings and seasons in past geologic eras. An acknowledgement. Tree-Ring Bulletin 20 Tree-ring dating in the American arctic. Dendroclimatic changes in semiarid regions. Index to place names, Tree-Ring Bulletin Volumes , Hoeg, O. Growth-ring research in Norway. Tree-Ring Bulletin Mikola, P. Tree-ring research in Finland. Huber, B. Studhalter, R. Early history of crossdating.

Edmund Schulman: Obituary. Bell, V. Dendrochronological studies in New Zealand. The origin of driftwood on Nunivak Island, Alaska. Tree-ring chronologies in south-central Alaska. The Tree-Ring Society: October, meetings. The growing season of Alaskan spruce. Bowers N. Research completed on power-driven tools for taking long core-borings.

Caldwell, W. Tree-ring dating in the Missouri Basin chronology program. International conference on forest tree growth. Volume 24 Number Tree-ring dates for cutting activity at the charcoal kilns, Panamint Mountains, California. Tree-Ring Bulletin 24 Fritts, H. The relevance of dendrographic studies to tree-ring research.

Nichols, R. Dates from the site pithouse, Mesa Verde National Park. Hayes, A. Andrew Ellicott Douglass: Obituary. HH Recollections of a dramatic moment in southwestern archaeology. Volume 25 Number The relation of growth ring widths in American beech and white oak to variations in climate.

Tree-Ring Bulletin 25 The Tree-Ring Society: May meetings. Computer programs for tree-ring research. Stokes, M. Tree-ring dates from the Navajo Land Claim I.

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Forest stand growth dynamics in Central Europe have accelerated since 1870

The northern sector. Bowers, N. New method of surfacing wood specimens for study. Stein, W. Comparison and analysis of modern and prehistoric tree species in the Flagstaff area, Arizona. The western sector. Volume 27 Number James Louis Giddings, obituary. Tree-Ring Bulletin 27 The variability of ring characteristics within trees as shown by a reanalysis of four ponderosa pine.

The southern sector. Weinman, J. Mitchell, V. Osborne, D. Smith, D. A tree-ring chronology for climatic analysis. Archaeological tree-ring dates from Wetherill Mesa. Tree-Ring Bulletin appendices and graphs attached. Volume 29 Number The eastern sector. Tree-Ring Bulletin 29 A revised computer program for standardizing tree-ring series.

Volume 29 Number Bristlecone Pine Issue. A year annual tree-ring chronology for bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata , from the White Mountains, California. Polge, H. The use of X-ray densitometric methods in dendrochronology. Parker, M. Preparation of X-ray negatives of tree-ring specimens for dendrochronological analysis. Jones, F. Tree-ring scanning densitometer and data acquisition system. Stockton, C. Conditional probability of occurrence for variations in climate based on the width of annual tree rings in Arizona. Naylor, T.

Dendrochronology in Oaxaca, Mexico: a preliminary study. Eckstein, D.


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Tree-ring research in Europe. LaMarche, Jr. Tree-rings and sunspot numbers. Pilcher, J. Tree-ring research in Ireland.

Baillie, M. A simple cross-dating program for tree-ring research. A recently developed Irish tree-ring chronology. Frequency-dependent relationships between tree-ring series along an ecological gradient and some dendrochronological implications. Chronologies from temperature-sensitive bristlecone pines at upper treeline in western United States.


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Tree-ring research in the Netherlands. Nash, III, T. A technique for examining non-climatic variation in widths of annual tree rings with special reference to air pollution. Bartholin, T. Dendrochronology of oak in southern Sweden. Selecting and characterizing tree-ring chronologies for dendroclimatic analysis. Wendland, W. An objective method to identify missing and false rings. Stevens, D. A computer program for simulating cambial activity and ring growth. Ermich, K. The degree of similarity of dendrochronological curves as an indicator of site conditions.

Robinson, W. Tree-ring dating and archaeology in the American southwest. A statistical oak chronology from the north of Ireland. Annual ring contrast enhancement without affecting X-ray densitometry studies. The Belfast oak chronology to AD Dublin medieval dendrochronology. Serre, F. A factor analysis of correspondences applied to ring widths. An oak chronology for south central Scotland. Bramhall, A. An improved scribe for dendrochronological annotations. Ogden, J. Investigations on the dendrochronology of the genus Athrotaxis D. Don Taxodiaceae in Tasmania. Hughes, M.

Dendrochronology of oak in North Wales, UK. The dendroclimatic value of the European larch Larix decidua Mill. Brett, D. Dendroclimatology of elm in London. Fletcher, J. Dating the geographical migration of Quercus petraea and Q. Brubaker, L. Effects of defoliation by Douglas fir tussock moth on ring sequences of Douglas fir and grand fir.

Schweingruber, F. The X-ray technique as applied to dendroclimatology. Stahle, D. Tree-ring dating of historic buildings in Arkansas. Conkey, L. Response of tree-ring density to climate in Maine, U. Liphschitz, N. Dendrochronological investigations in Iran. Cropper, J. Tree-ring skeleton plotting by computer. Berger, A. Tree rings and climate in Morocco. Graybill, D. Revised computer programs for tree-ring research. Lawson, M. Dendroclimatic analysis of bur oak in eastern Nebraska.

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Hillam, J. A medieval oak tree-ring chronology from southwest England. Six modern oak chronologies from Ireland. Warren, W. On removing the growth trend from dendrochronological data. Eight modern oak chronologies from England and Scotland. A microcomputer-based tree-ring measuring system.

Peters, K. Principal components analysis of tree-ring sites. Gray, B. Statistical significance and reproducibility of tree-ring response functions. Blasing, T. Dendroclimatic calibration and verification using regionally averaged and single station precipitation data. Cook, E. The smoothing spline: a new approach to standardizing forest interior tree-ring width series for dendroclimatic studies. Warren, M. Test of a new method for removing the growth trend from dendrochronological data. Density of tree-ring grids in western North America. Phipps, R. Comments on interpretation of climatic information from tree rings, eastern North America.

Gemmill, B. Development of tree-ring chronologies in an ozone air pollution-stressed forest in southern California, USA. Guiot, J. Some new mathematical procedures in dendroclimatology, with examples from Switzerland and Morocco. Leavitt, S. Stable carbon isotopes as a potential supplemental tool in dendrochronology. Revel, R. The use of scanning electron microscopy as a tool in dendrochronology. Tree-Ring Society [Increase in subscription rates and change of editorship]. Tree-Ring Bulletin i.

Norton, D. Modern New Zealand tree-ring chronologies I: Nothofagus solandri. Filtering the effects of competition from ring-width series. Testing the significance of summary response functions. McBride, J. Analysis of tree rings and fire scars to establish fire history. Holmes, R. Computer-assisted quality control in tree-ring dating and measurement.

Kickert, R. Curves and Align: Some new computerized methods for the analysis of tree-ring data. Response functions revisited. Munro, M. An improved algorithm for crossdating tree-ring series. Multicolinearity within selected western North American temperature and precipitation data sets. Ewel, K. Usefulness of annual growth rings of cypress trees Taxodium distichum for impact analysis. Dunwiddie, P. The dendrochronological potential of Populus balsamifera in northern Alaska. Tree-Ring Bulletin: Editorial policy and instructions to authors. Tree-Ring Bulletin , Tree-Ring Bulletin: Editorial policy.

Tree-Ring Bulletin inside front cover. Tree-ring dating through pattern matching of stable-carbon isotope time series. Ahmed, M. Agathis australis Salisb. Villalba, R. Cedrela angustifolia and Juglans australis : Two new tropical species useful in dendrochronology. Boninsegna, J. Fitzroya cupressoides yields year long South American chronology. T ree-Ring Bulletin Akachuku, A. Intra-annual variation in wood density in Gmelina arborea from X-ray densitometry and its relationship with rainfall. Charles Wesley Ferguson, obituary. Genova, R. Dendroclimatology of mountain pine Pinus uncinata Ram.

Cleaveland, M. Climatic response of densitometric properties in semiarid site tree rings. A comparison between response-function analysis and other regression techniques. Yamaguchi, D. Interpretation of cross-correlation between tree-ring series. Kojo, Y. A dendrochronological study of Cryptomeria japonica in Japan. Till, C. The summary response function of Cedrus atlantica Endl. Carriere in Morocco. The decomposition of tree-ring series for environmental studies.

Morgan, R. Trackways and tree-trunks - dating Neolithic oaks in the British Isles. Biondi, F. Box-Jenkins models of forest interior tree-ring chronologies. Instructions to authors and editor's comments [acknowledgment of reviewers]. Valmore C. Alfaro, R. From correspondence of the Lubavitcher Rebbe; translated by Eli Touger.

Schneerson , of righteous memory. If you enjoyed this article, we encourage you to distribute it further, provided that you comply with Chabad. Browse Book. Buy Book. In the Rebbe's correspondence we see his scholarship, the care he has for every individual Jew, the communal projects which he pioneered, and many other dimensions of his leadership. The Rebbe gives a person an insight that lifts him above the vantage point from which he operated previously and gives him the perspective to find a solution to his difficulties.

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The Rebbe: Marching Orders. Watch 16 Comments. Start a Discussion. Post Anonymously. Email me when new comments are posted. Please allow me to receive Chabad. Your email address will not be shared with any third parties. Posting Guidelines. Correspondence G-d and Us. Business and Employment. Zalmon Jaffe. Mel Landow. Death and Mourning. Kabbalah and the Mystical. Confidence limit Upper and Lower values : This is the range of values within which one might expect to find the parameter with same degree of assurance and is estimated as:. Correlation Coefficient Calculation Pairing of the growth parameters to examine the type of linear relationship between them was carried out with spearman correlation.

Volume Model Generation For the purpose of modeling, individual tree growth variables across all sample plots in each of the two sites were used. The tree growth variables from both sites were also pooled together to generate models that could be used for volume estimation in tropical rainforest ecosystem of southwest Nigeria and in other places with similar vegetation and environmental factors.

The Von Betalanffys growth model adopted by Richard and Chapman termed as Chapman-Richard growth model was modified and used in this study. The original model is of the form:. This original model was modified and age was replaced with basal area. This is because tree age is very difficult to determine in natural forests. So the non-linear models adopted in this study are:. All these models are intrinsically nonlinear regression models. In order to estimate the parameters regression constants a, b and c of the function, the nonlinear estimation module of Statistica software using the user-defined option and a non-linear least square estimation procedure was adopted Statistica, This was with the aim of minimizing the sum of squared deviations of the observed values for the dependent variable from those predicted by the models.

Assessment of the Models The volume models were assessed with the view of recommending those with good fit for further uses. The following statistical criteria were used:. Significance of Regression F-ratio This is to test the overall significance of the regression equations. The critical value of F i. Where the variance ratio F-calculated is greater than the critical values F-tabulated such equation is therefore significant and can be accepted for prediction.

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Multiple Correlation Coefficient R This measures the degree of association between two variables i. Coefficient of Determination R 2 This is the measure of the proportion of variation in the dependent variable that is explained by the behaviour of the independent variable Thomas, These values must be relatively small for the models to be valid.

The validation process examines the usefulness or validity of the models Marshall and Northway, The entire field data were divided into two sets. The first set calibrating set , comprised tree data from trees in Ala, trees in Omo forest reserves and trees when data from both reserves were pooled. These were used for generating the models. The second set validating set comprised tree data from 40 trees in Ala, 39 trees in Omo and 83 trees for both reserves.

These were used for validating the models Cooper and Weekes, The models outputs were individually compared with observed values using simple linear regression equation. The observed volume was the dependent variable while the models output was the independent variable. For models with good fit, the intercept must be close to 0 and the slope close to 1, the model must be significant, with highly correlated, coefficient of determination value must be very high and the standard of error of estimate must be small values Onyekwelu and Akindele, ; Adekunle et al.

Residual plots and frequency distribution of residuals for the models that involved data from both reserves were also obtained to further confirm the usefulness and suitability of the models for tree volume estimation. One-way Analysis of Variance ANOVA was also adopted to test for the presence of significant differences in the models output and where significant difference occurred, mean separation was done with fishers Least Significant Difference LSD. The value must be relatively small for the model to be acceptable for management purpose.

The species and family names of trees encountered in the sample plots with their respective relative abundance are shown in Table 1. Table 2 shows the various families and number of species in each of the families. On the whole, 61 Nigerian tropical tree species distributed among 24 families and individuals were present in the study areas as represented by the sample plots. The most abundance species is Strombosia pustulata.

This is followed by Cordia milenii. These species have 49 and 36 individual trees, respectively.

The Most Important Factor for Growing Healthy Trees | DeepRoot Blog

The family with the highest number of species is Sterculiaceae 7 species. This is followed by Moraceae and Caesalpiniodeae with six species each. The family, Leguminosae, is a large family with three sub-families namely Caesalpiniodeae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. The number of species in these sub-families is 6, 4 and 2, respectively. The summary of tree growth variables obtained for Ala, Omo and when data from the two reserves were pooled together is shown in Table 3.

Table 4 reveals the results of the descriptive statistics of dbh and heights for all the trees. Generally, higher values were recorded for Ala forest reserve when compared with Omo forest reserve. The mean dbh and height is The maximum dbh of tree is cm and that of height is 36 m with a range of for dbh and Correlation Coefficient of the Various Growth Parameters There is generally more positive linear relationship between the variables.

The highest correlation coefficient value was obtained between the square of basal area and volume 0. The value 0. This could be attributed to the fact that number of trees, in actual sense, is not necessarily a tree growth variable Table 6. Result of the Non-Linear Models The results of the non-linear models with their assessment criteria are presented as follows for Ala Forest Reserve:.

The results of the non linear models with their assessment criteria for Omo Forest Reserve are presented as follows:. The results of the non-linear regression models for tree volume estimation when data from both forest reserves were combined are:. Exponential model was also used to generate tree volume equation for the study area with dominant height Hd in meter as independent variable. The equation obtained is:. All the non-linear models were discovered to have good fit and as a result, they are very adequate for tree volume estimation even when age was surrogated with basal area as the independent variable.

The R-values ranged between 0. The R 2 values for the models in this reserve Ala are The results of the correlation coefficient when data from the two reserves were pooled together were 0. Exponential model obtained with dominant height as independent variable has a small R 2 Table 8 shows that all the models have good fit. The values in Ala forest reserve are For Omo forest reserve, the percentage biases are For the combined data, the percentage biases are 3.

But the results of the assessment and validation reveal that models 1a and 1b are the best for Ala and Omo forest reserves respectively and model 3c for the two reserves together. The fitness and validity of all these models were further confirmed by obtaining the residual plots i. Figure 2 - 6 represented residual plots for models 1c to 5c, respectively.

Tree species diversity obtained in this study area is typical of tropical rainforest ecosystem. Sixty-one Nigerian tropical timber species distributed among 24 families were encountered. This ecosystem has been adjudged the richest single ecosystem of the world due to species richness and diversity Adekunle, and Species in this ecosystem are very useful as timber, enrichment of soil fertility, creation of microclimate and the supply of many non timber forest products.

Tree species in the three sub-families under Leguminosae also encountered are noted for their ability to fix nitrogen thereby increasing soil fertility. The number of individual observation per species is generally low. About 15 of the tree species occurred only once i. This finding is similar to the observation of Akindele and LeMay Clark and Clark noted that in spite of the high level of tree species diversity in tropical natural forest, most tree species are generally few.

For tree growth variables, the mean dbh value was This shows that most of the trees in these forest reserves are below the minimum merchantable size of 48 cm stipulated by logging policy of southwestern Nigeria. The basal area per hectare in each of the forest reserves is also less than 24 m 2 prescribed for a well stocked forest Alder and Abayomi, The commonest diameter at breast height and height are 25 cm and 18 m, respectively.

But in an even-age forest stand, dbh distributions usually follow a normal distribution. There is a wide range in diameter distribution cm and the skewness and kurtosis values for the dbh distribution are 2. The efficacy of non-linear models for estimating volume in tropical rainforest ecosystem was obtained in this study. Generation of the non linear models involved the specification of the non linear functions and a loss function.

The specified values of the loss function were computed for each case in the data set. This estimation procedure found parameters that minimize the sum of those values across all cases. After specification of the functions, the quasi-Newton estimation method was selected for the iterations. The second order derivatives of the loss function were asymptotically estimated and used to determine the movement of parameters from iteration to iteration. At least thirty iterations were involved for model convergence. The assessment criteria revealed that all the models are very suitable for tree volume estimation in natural forest ecosystem.

These models were similar to those used by Adegbehin for Pinus caribaea , Eucalyptus cloeziana and E. In their studies, age was used as independent variable while in this present study, age was surrogated with basal area.